Two, were the principal events of this month: the second Consistory of the Pontificate, 24 and 25 November during which Pope Benedict XVI created twenty three new Cardinals, and the publication of Pope Ratzinger's second Encyclical, “Spe salvi”, presented at the beginning of Advent. Cardinals are called to be “apostles of God who is Love and witness to gospel hope”, and when he presented the Cardinals with their ring, Benedict XVI reminded them of the King they are called to serve: “and of the Throne upon which He was lifted up and was faithful to the end, in order to conquer sin and death with the power of divine mercy… Wearing the Cardinal's ring you are continually reminded to give your life for the Church" the Pope said. On November 10 the Holy Father granted a special audience to members of the Confraternities of the dioceses of Italy, reminding them of their calling to be “a community of brothers striving to live the Gospel aware of being a living part of the Church, and to put into practice the commandments of love ”. Important also was the audience granted to participants at the 34th Conference organised by the United National Food and Agriculture Organisation. The Pope drew attention to a concerning paradox of our times: “the relentless spread of poverty in a world that is also experiencing unprecedented prosperity, not only in the economic sphere but also in the rapidly developing fields of science and technology. ”. On the 8th of November, on the occasion of the 16th centenary since the death of St John Chrysostom, the Holy Father addressed a Letter to the Bishops and the Faithful in which he praises St John's service to maintain Church unity, “reinvigorating in his listeners the Christian identity, at a time in history when the Church was threatened from within and from outside ”. Receiving in audience the Italian Federation of Catholic Universities (F.U.C.I.) the Pope said “study constitutes a providential opportunity to advance on the journey of faith, because a well-cultivated intelligence opens the heart of man to listen to the voice of God, emphasising the importance of discernment and humility”.